Odd Chromatic Number of Graph Classes

Nikolaos Melissinos, 30 Oct 2023

A graph is called odd (respectively, even) if every vertex has odd (respectively, even) degree. Gallai proved that every graph can be partitioned into two even induced subgraphs, or into an odd and an even induced subgraph. We refer to a partition into odd subgraphs as an odd colouring of \(G\). Scott [Graphs and Combinatorics, 2001] proved that a graph admits an odd colouring if and only if it has an even number of vertices. We say that a graph \(G\) is \(k\)-odd colourable if it can be partitioned into at most \(k\) odd induced subgraphs. We initiate the systematic study of odd colouring and odd chromatic number of graph classes. In particular, we consider for a number of classes whether they have bounded odd chromatic number. Our main results are that interval graphs, graphs of bounded modular-width and graphs of bounded maximum degree all have bounded odd chromatic number.